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Ving pathogens , these types of vaccines are usually safe compared toVing pathogens , these types of vaccines are usually safe compared to live attenuated vaccines. Overall, these technologies have allowed to achieve the successes of vaccinology in the last century and to produce the vaccine formulations available on the market. However many new vaccines are needed and for them , [8] new str
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Ving pathogens , these types of vaccines are usually safe compared toVing pathogens , these types of vaccines are usually safe compared to live attenuated vaccines. Overall, these technologies have allowed to achieve the successes of vaccinology in the last century and to produce the vaccine formulations available on the market. However many new vaccines are needed and for them , [8] new str
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Dvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease ofDvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease of manufacturing, and immunogenicity (Table 1). As DNAbased plasmid vaccines are non-live, non-replicating, non-spreading vaccines, there is a little or no risk of mutation or reversion to the virulent form as with viral vectors, therefore rais
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Dvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease ofDvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease of manufacturing, and immunogenicity (Table 1). As DNAbased plasmid vaccines are non-live, non-replicating, non-spreading vaccines, there is a little or no risk of mutation or reversion to the virulent form as with viral vectors, therefore rais
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G theoretically suitable for repeated booster shots. Furthermore, recent innovations inG theoretically suitable for repeated booster shots. Furthermore, recent innovations in plasmid host strain and vector engineering increased plasmid manufacturing quality and yield, transgene expression levels, transfection efficiency, for a safer and more effective gene platform [10,11] compared to first
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Tend to be more difficult and expensive to store and toTend to be more difficult and expensive to store and to distribute, since viability must be maintained, often requiring formulation approaches [7] for stabilization . On the other hand, killed/inactivated vaccines have a number of disadvantages. The major challenge is that since cells are never infected with the live microbe, these vacci
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That provides selection and propagation in host bacteria. Although the exactThat provides selection and propagation in host bacteria. Although the exact mechanism by which DNA vaccines work still remains unclear recent advances have provided a deeper , understanding of the molecular and immunological [12-14] mechanisms of action of these vectors . Generally, once the DNA plasmid is administe
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Veloping these vaccines. Live attenuated vaccine can eventually mutate into aVeloping these vaccines. Live attenuated vaccine can eventually mutate into a more virulent form capable of [5] causing diseases , whereas inactivated or killed vaccines and protein subunit vaccines generally generate weak [6] immune responses often requiring the use of adjuvants . Many live attenuated vaccines are