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Tend to be more difficult and expensive to store and toTend to be more difficult and expensive to store and to distribute, since viability must be maintained, often requiring formulation approaches [7] for stabilization . On the other hand, killed/inactivated vaccines have a number of disadvantages. The major challenge is that since cells are never infected with the live microbe, these vacci
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Dvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease ofDvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease of manufacturing, and immunogenicity (Table 1). As DNAbased plasmid vaccines are non-live, non-replicating, non-spreading vaccines, there is a little or no risk of mutation or reversion to the virulent form as with viral vectors, therefore rais
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That provides selection and propagation in host bacteria. Although the exactThat provides selection and propagation in host bacteria. Although the exact mechanism by which DNA vaccines work still remains unclear recent advances have provided a deeper , understanding of the molecular and immunological [12-14] mechanisms of action of these vectors . Generally, once the DNA plasmid is administe
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That provides selection and propagation in host bacteria. Although the exactThat provides selection and propagation in host bacteria. Although the exact mechanism by which DNA vaccines work still remains unclear recent advances have provided a deeper , understanding of the molecular and immunological [12-14] mechanisms of action of these vectors . Generally, once the DNA plasmid is administe
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Veloping these vaccines. Live attenuated vaccine can eventually mutate into aVeloping these vaccines. Live attenuated vaccine can eventually mutate into a more virulent form capable of [5] causing diseases , whereas inactivated or killed vaccines and protein subunit vaccines generally generate weak [6] immune responses often requiring the use of adjuvants . Many live attenuated vaccines are
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Veloping these vaccines. Live attenuated vaccine can eventually mutate into aVeloping these vaccines. Live attenuated vaccine can eventually mutate into a more virulent form capable of [5] causing diseases , whereas inactivated or killed vaccines and protein subunit vaccines generally generate weak [6] immune responses often requiring the use of adjuvants . Many live attenuated vaccines are
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Dvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease ofDvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease of manufacturing, and immunogenicity (Table 1). As DNAbased plasmid vaccines are non-live, non-replicating, non-spreading vaccines, there is a little or no risk of mutation or reversion to the virulent form as with viral vectors, therefore rais
1
Dvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease ofDvantages over traditional strategies in terms of safety, stability, ease of manufacturing, and immunogenicity (Table 1). As DNAbased plasmid vaccines are non-live, non-replicating, non-spreading vaccines, there is a little or no risk of mutation or reversion to the virulent form as with viral vectors, therefore rais