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Tend to be more difficult and expensive to store and toTend to be more difficult and expensive to store and to distribute, since viability must be maintained, often requiring formulation approaches [7] for stabilization . On the other hand, killed/inactivated vaccines have a number of disadvantages. The major challenge is that since cells are never infected with the live microbe, these vacci
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Mass consists of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and poor prognosis is associated with elevated levels of TAMs [44]. Stimuli in the tumor environment polarize TAMs towards a protumor M2 rather than an anti-tumor M1 phenotype [45]. TGF- promotes tumor progression by recruiting TAMs to compete with dendritic cells by suppressing their antigen-presentation [34]. Zhang et al. provide evidence that
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Ana (70112-2699) USA Email: David G Nielsen - dnielsen@tulane.eduPublished: 27 November 2009 Virology Journal 2009, 6:211 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-6-Received: 27 October 2009 Accepted: 27 NovemberThis article is available from: http://www.virologyj.com/content/6/1/211 ?2009 Nielsen; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribu
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Ana (70112-2699) USA Email: David G Nielsen - dnielsen@tulane.eduPublished: 27 November 2009 Virology Journal 2009, 6:211 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-6-Received: 27 October 2009 Accepted: 27 NovemberThis article is available from: http://www.virologyj.com/content/6/1/211 ?2009 Nielsen; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribu
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Stimulated M2 polarization. Moreover, human explant mammary gland cultures treated with rSFRP1 show a marked reduction in the human M2 marker, CD163. CD163 is a monocyte/macrophage-restricted scavenge receptor [47] and the mechanism by which rSFRP1 reduces CD163 expression may be due in part to repression of Wnt signaling because Bergenfelz et al. show that breast cancer CD163+ TAMs correlate with
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Risk. Mild dengue fever presents with headache, fever, rash, myalgia, osteogenic pain, and lethargy. Severe disease can manifest as dengue shock syndrome (DSS) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Symptoms of DSS/DHF are leukopenia, low blood volume and pressure encephalitis, cold and sweaty skin, gastrointestinal bleeding, and spontaneous bleeding from gums and nose. Currently, there are no therape
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Risk. Mild dengue fever presents with headache, fever, rash, myalgia, osteogenic pain, and lethargy. Severe disease can manifest as dengue shock syndrome (DSS) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Symptoms of DSS/DHF are leukopenia, low blood volume and pressure encephalitis, cold and sweaty skin, gastrointestinal bleeding, and spontaneous bleeding from gums and nose. Currently, there are no therape
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Stimulated M2 polarization. Moreover, human explant mammary gland cultures treated with rSFRP1 show a marked reduction in the human M2 marker, CD163. CD163 is a monocyte/macrophage-restricted scavenge receptor [47] and the mechanism by which rSFRP1 reduces CD163 expression may be due in part to repression of Wnt signaling because Bergenfelz et al. show that breast cancer CD163+ TAMs correlate with
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